31 October 2014

Logs: 27-30 October

00286.5    469 : Porquerolles, F 1243 DGPS TXID 339 100bps (27Oct14) (AAI)                   
00290.0    720 : Holmsjo, S 2004 DGPS TXID 460 100bps (30Oct14) (AAI)                   
00291.0    691 : Wormleighton, U 2201 DGPS TXID 439 100bps (30Oct14) (AAI)                   
00293.5    764 : Iffezheim, D 2217 DGPS TXID 494 100 bps (27Oct14) (AAI)                   
00295.0    530 : Obristvi, CZE 2159 DGPS TX ID 850 100 bps (27Oct14) (AAI)                   
00298.5    762 : Dune Helgoland, D 2032 DGPS TXID 492 100bps (30Oct14) (AAI)                   
00303.5    763 : Zeven, D 2145 DGPS TXID 493 100bps (30Oct14) (AAI)                   
00306.0    PAR : Parma, I 2143 CW ID (30Oct14) (AAI)                   
00308.0    MOJ : Mojkovac, MNE 2133 CW ID+5" tone (30Oct14) (AAI)                   
00313.5    532 : Cabo San Sebastian, E 2109 DGPS TXID 366 100bps (30Oct14) (AAI)                   
00314.5    765 : Bad Abbach, D 2040 DGPS TX ID 495 100bps (28Oct14) (AAI)                   
00362.0    BZO : Bolzano, I 2004 NDB CW ID (27Oct14) (AAI)                   
00426.0    GBG : Gleichenberg for Graz, AUT 1950 NDB CW ID (27Oct14) (AAI)

06450.0    CINUS : GdF Patrol Boat Cinus G 9, I 1808 ALE/USB clg TARANTO handshake + voice (29Oct14) (AAI)                   
06450.0    LASPINA : GdF patrol boat La Spina G 122, I 1742 ALE/USB clg BARI, handshake + voice (29Oct14) (AAI)                   
08050.0    RS004 : (prob Macedonian Military, MKD) 1444 ALE/USB clg CS0 (28Oct14) (AAI)

08050.0    CS001 : (prob Macedonian Military, MKD) 1455 ALE/USB clg RS005 (28Oct14) (AAI)
08050.0    RS004 : (prob Macedonian Military, MKD) 1447 ALE/USB clg RS003 (28Oct14) (AAI)
08060.0    CS003 : (prob Macedonian Military, MKD) 1442 ALE/USB clg RS0014 (28Oct14) (AAI)08060.0    CS003 : (prob Macedonian Military, MKD) 1437 ALE/USB clg RS0012 (28Oct14) (AAI)                   
08060.0    RS009B : (prob Macedonian Military, MKD) 1603 ALE/USB clg CS003A + handshake (28Oct14) (AAI)                   
11226.0    JTY : USAF Yakota Air Base, J 2156 ALE/USB sndg (28Oct14) (AAI)                   
11226.0    HAW : USAF Widewake Ascension Is, ASC 2144 ALE/USB sndg (28Oct14) (AAI)

11300.0    --- : AFI-3 Khartoum LDOC, SDN 2245 USB J3E female working IH-724 (28Oct14) (AAI)
11345.0    SDJ : Stckholm Radio, S 1420 USB J3E working BJGS, OKTVE (29Oct14) (AAI)

12464.0    RJC20 : Russian Navy ship 1225 CW QTC "214 19 29 1523 214" (29Oct14) (AAI)12510.0    --- : unid ship 1348 ARQ Sitor-A/100/170 selcal to QVXY (30Oct14) (AAI) 

28 October 2014

DGPS: the new frontier of DXing ?

Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is an enhancement to Global Positioning System that provides improved location accuracy, from the 15-meter nominal GPS accuracy to about 10 cm (!) in case of the best implementations.
DGPS uses a network of fixed, ground-based reference stations to broadcast the difference between the positions indicated by the satellite systems and the known fixed positions. These stations broadcast the difference between the measured satellite pseudoranges and actual (internally computed) pseudoranges, and receiver stations may correct their pseudoranges by the same amount. The digital correction signal is typically broadcast locally over ground-based transmitters of shorter range. Just these stations are called DGPS Beacons.

DGPS serving marine navigation

DGPS serving inland users

Differential correction techniques are used to enhance the quality of location data gathered using global positioning system (GPS) receivers. Differential correction can be applied in real-time directly in the field or when postprocessing data in the office. Although both methods are based on the same underlying principles, each accesses different data sources and achieves different levels of accuracy. Combining both methods provides flexibility during data collection and improves data integrity.

Real-time DGPS
occurs when the base station calculates and broadcasts corrections for each satellite as it receives the data. The correction is received by the roving receiver via a radio signal if the source is land based or via a satellite signal if it is satellite based and applied to the position it is calculating. As a result, the position displayed and logged to the data file of the roving GPS receiver is a differentially corrected position.

Postprocessing Correction
Differentially correcting GPS data by postprocessing uses a base GPS receiver that logs positions at a known location and a rover GPS receiver that collects positions in the field. The files from the base and rover are transferred to the office processing software, which computes corrected positions for the rover's file. This resulting corrected file can be viewed in or exported to a GIS.


These signals can be found on LF, on the channels listed in the Marine Beacon Bandplan in Section Nine; in Europe the band covers 283.5 to 315 kHz, but in some other parts of the world 315 to 325 kHz are also used.  DGPS beacons are heard using G1D modulation with Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), a frequency shift keying mode with very small bandwidth, and their sound resembles a RTTY/Navtex signal. 

DGPS spectrum [1]
The baud rate in many cases will be 100 bps though there are still quite a lot of 200 bps beacons in some parts of the world (especially North America). Baud rate setting may be set manually or automatically by the decoder.
tuning a DGPS beacon on 286.5 KHz
You can use software such as DSCdecoder or Multipsk to decode DGPS signals and see where they are coming from: DSCdecoder my be downloaded from the following site , it has a 21 days test period and costs Euro €25 (plus VAT for EUresidents) for personal use. Personally I use Multipsk and SkySweeper (see below).

Pay attention to the false decodes which return "exotic" beacons. The reasons for these being created are more complex, but sometimes not being tuned in properly, or even loud static bursts can start the decoder going and ‘invert’ signals , and this can be a problem when unattended monitoring is being attempted, and the user can’t see what is causing it. Moreover, most Message Types used by DGPS beacons fall into a limited category, so anything outside of these should be treated with caution, especially if only one decode ‘frame’ is received, and not multiple identical decodes. 

As David GM8XBZ say:
"The station details that a decoding programme gives are from a lookup table that it holds. When it gets a station reference, it prints out the info it has in the software. All you receive is the station number. If that is an error, the software doesn't know.
The big clue, besides the range and time, is the Z-count value. In a 'good' decode, this should be the same as the time-stamp from the PC.  for example, at 21:12:30, the Z-count should be close to 1230 (12 min 30secs)."

DGPS Message Types
There are a number of different ‘Message Types’ broadcasted by the various DGPS beacons, and below is a list of what these are in my log and what they mean:

Message Type: 1 Differential GPS Correction
Message Type: 3 GPS Reference Station Parameters

Message Type: 5 GPS constellation health
Message Type: 6 GPS null frame
Message Type: 7 DGPS Radiobeacon Almanac
Message Type: 9 GPS Partial Correction Set

but there are up to 63 message types:

DGPS message types [1]
DGPS decoders and reception
Below a DGPS transmission received just some minute ago from station number 469 (Porquerolles FRA 286.5 Khz TXID 339 100bps): the same transmission has been decoded with Multipsk and SkySweeper (this one showing local time, UTC -1):

working 469 DGPS beacon with Multipsk

working 469 DGPS beacon with SkySweeper

When loggin a DGPS beacon, its "reference ID" is indicated as "station number" by decoders: this number is usually taken as its callsign while the TX ID number is noted in details within the its baud rate. In the above case I'll log:

00286.5 469: DGPS Porquerolles, FRA 1243 TXID #339 100bps

The "station number" helps to identify the received beacon. As seen, two numbers exits (see the table below)

1. GPS reference station number
2. DGPS broadcast station number (see the table below)

The numbers itself are not part of the RTCM standard, but are assigned by IALA. Some authorities stick to the RTCM standard and send the reference station number, others use the broadcast station number.
DGPS beacons in the UK, Norway and Denmark, for example, transmit reference station numbers, while those in The Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Finland send the broadcast station number.
This confusion has not been resolved so far.

Stations Numbers [1]

European Differential Beacon Transmitters (European DGPS Network)

Trinity House have changed the frequency of many of the UK DGPS beacons, see:

Happy DGPS DXing ! 

27 October 2014

the poor-man guide for ship plotting

using Google Earth to display positions of the ships

from my logs of 25 October:

12464.0 RMCW: Russian Navy ship "Donuzlav" 1205z
CW "RCv DE RMCW = SML FOR RJE73 RJH45 = ...99417 1T296...22212"
-> position 41.7N 29.6E Heading North-East @6-10 knots

12464.0 RMGB: Russian Navy ship "Iman" 1207z
CW "RCV DE RMGB = SML FOR RJH45 RJe73 = ...99351 10239...22262"
-> position 35.1N 23.9E Heading West @6-10 knots

12464.0 RJC20: Russian Navy unid ship 1210z
CW "RCV DE RJC2Ø = SML FOR RJH45 RJE73 =...99351 10235...22232"
-> position 35.1N 23.5E Heading South-East @6-10 knots

Now we want to plot (and save) the above ships positions using google earth. You have to know that you may create your own google-earth kml files (Keyhole Markup Language)  in order to show the ship's position on google-earth or google-maps. Just write a single kml file for each ship you want to trace then save the file with then ".kml" extension. 

First creates a special directory in your documents folder, naming it as you want (assume "ships positions"). Then in order to create your kml files use this very very basic default schema:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<kml xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2">
    <name>placemark name shown in the map</name>
    <description>description shown by clicking on the placemark</description>
longitude(E or W),latitude (N or S)</coordinates>

for example, file for RJC20 tracking:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<kml xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2">
    <description>Russian Navy RJC20, position at 25 October</description>

Then save the file using a self-explaining name and the appropriate extension such as "RJC20-25-oct.kml" in the directory that you created earlier (i.e. "ships positions").
PAY ATTENTION you may use the basic block-notes program by Windows but remember to select all files mode when you save the file so to give it the right extension (.kml), otherwise the file will be saved with the ".txt" extension.

Now start your google-earth program and click File > Open, navigate to your "ships positions" directory, select your previous saved .kml file, and click Open. The file will be added to the Temporary Places section of your Places panel and the position will be imported and displayed. By clicking on Temporary Places - file name you may the refine the map and store it... et voila' !

Logs: 21-26 October

05123.0    BB1 : Isralei Air Force Palmachim, ISR 2055 ALE/USB sndg (21Oct14)
05832.0    GXQ : unid ALE network 1952 ALE/USB clg 2CBMG1 (23Oct14)
05832.0    GXQ : unid ALE network 2001 ALE/USB clg CFR787 (23Oct14)   
06330.0    TSM : Israeli Air Force, ISR 2225 ALE/USB sndg (23Oct14)
06330.0    BB2 : Israeli Air Force, ISR 2218 ALE/USB sndg (23Oct14)
06330.0    AAA : Israeli Air Force Tel Aviv, ISR 2232 ALE/USB sndg (23Oct14)               
06330.0    AA1 : Israeli Air Force, ISR 2240 ALE/USB sndg (23Oct14)       
06330.0    BB3 : Israeli Air Force Palmachin, ISR 2219 ALE/USB sndg (23Oct14)
06790.0    4204 : SONATRACH, ALG 2108 ALE/USB sndg (22Oct14)
06821.0    4XZ : Israeli Navy Haifa, ISR 2035 MIL-STD 188-110A/QPSK Hybrid Modem msgs nd (21Oct14)
07843.2    --- : unid NATO modem 2120 STANAG-4285/600L encrypted (24Oct14)
08132.0    BPLEZS : Bundespolizei, Cuxhaven, D 1552 ALE/USB clg BP23 (26Oct14)
08132.0    BPLEZS : Bundespolizei, Cuxhaven, D 1636 ALE/USB clg BP21 (26Oct14)
08149.2    IDR : Italian Navy Rome, I 1130 STANAG-4285/600L CARBs + keys legend (23Oct14)
08337.2    --- : unid NATO modem 2125 STANAG-4285/1200L encrypted (24Oct14)
08345.0    RME81 : Russian Navy ship 1808 CW "RMP DE RME81 QSA? QTC K" (26Oct14)
10712.0    --- : Russian Navy 1516 BEE/50/200 Sync 0x1eb41eb2952 (21Oct14)
10796.0    RAA : Russian Navy HQ Moscow, RUS 1307 CW in progress "Z 14522 3543Ø 21Ø38 = RPT AL AR RAA K" (21Oct14)
11027.0    --- : Russian diplo RUS 1253 USB/Serdolik nd (21Oct14)
12209.0    33351 : Turkish Civil Defence, TUR 1223 ALE/USB clg 3011 (21Oct14)
12209.0    3411 : Turkish Civil Defence Kocaeli, TUR 1238 ALE/USB sndg (21Oct14)
12209.0    818 : prob. Turkish Civil Defence , TUR 1218 ALE/USB sndg (21Oct14)
12464.0    RMGB : Russian Navy "Iman" 1207 CW "SML FOR RJE73 RJH45 = ...99417 10296...22212" (25Oct14)
12464.0    RMCW : Russian Navy Donuzlav 1203 CW "QTC 81 18 22 1601 81 = ...99355 10303..." (22Oct14)
12464.0    RMCW : Russian Navy Donuzlav 1208 CW sending FM-13 synoptic report "...99358 10348..." (21Oct14)
12464.0    RJC20 : Russian Navy ship 1210 CW "SML FOR RJH45 RJE73 =...99351 10235...22232" (25Oct14)
12464.0    RMCW : Russian Navy Donuzlav 1205 CW "SML FOR RJE73 RJH45 = ...99417 10296...22212" (25Oct14)
12464.0    RFE76 : Russian Navy, Sibiriyakov 1207 CW "RCV DE RFE76 QYT4 QSA 3/4 QSA? K" (26Oct14)
12530.0    .--- : unid CIS Mil 1255 USB/J3E followed by AT-3004D transmission (25Oct14)
14376.0    G8RV : Russian Mil duplex 1157 CW 5-letters groups..."* G8RV QRV K" (22Oct14)
14556.0    RIW : Russian Navy HQ Moscow, RUS 1240 CW "497 55 22 142T 497 = FM RAA = 64981 IIII AS1 IIII RIW AS1 K" (22Oct14)
14556.0    RIW : Russian Navy HQ Moscow, RUS 1242 CW "QYT4 QWH 11842/12872 QSX 1237Ø/15463 K" (22Oct14)
14600.0    SPI : Polish Military, POL 1406 ALE/USB clg SNB813, Handshake (22Oct14)
14600.0    SPI : Polish Military, POL 1402 ALE/USB clg LCR154, no reply (22Oct14)
16402.0    ABA : Maltese Maritime HQ Floriana, MLT 1141 ALE/USB clg AB1 rptd 1148z (25Oct14)
19162.0    --- : MFA Cairo, EGY 1356 ARQ/Sitor-A clg New Delhi Embassy + Codan-9001 msgs nd (25Oct14)

IDR Italian Navy from Rome HQ
IDR Italian Navy - antenna site near Rome

RIW Russian Navy HQ, on-line decoding with multiPSK

25 October 2014

CODAN-9001/3012: MPSK-16 QPSK

The CODAN 9001 modem uses the 16 QPSK carriers for the transport of data (payload), each carrier is independently modulated with data so it carries a distinct channel-packet. All the 16 concurrent channel-packets constitute a frame and a number of frames constitute a multi-frame.

This "data" waveform is an asynchronous adaptive ARQ system. The modulation rate of each of the 16 tones is 75 Baud; the modulation type is quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK). The QPSK scheme uses from 656.25 Hz to 2343.75 Hz, these center frequencies are derived from a 600 Hz to 2400 Hz frequency spread and 112.5 Hz per QPSK channel (http://signals.radioscanner.ru/base/signal85/)

While the CODAN-9001 transports data, the CODAN Chirp provides the ALE/selcall (Automatic Link Establishment) part between the peers.

Each payload data packet has a constant length and a sequence number. However, the numbering only serves as an example, and due to the use of ARQ-based retransmissions the numbering may not be sequential.

CODAN-9001 16 tones schema
Independent of the payload data field, the sequence number field has its own error detecting and correcting code. Payload data in each channel packet is protected by a cyclic redundancy code (CRC). This feature is included in order to allow the ARQ protocol to request retransmission of packets received in error.
A session consists of one or more multi-frames. Depending on the amount of data queued for transfer the length of a multi-frame may vary. The receiving modem will extract the frames from the multi-frame determining the number of channel packets and checking whether payload data was received without errors. If a channel packet was received in error a re-transmission is requested. It should be clear from this that a multi-frame may consist of a mixture of new data and re-transmitted data. Re-transmitted data may appear on any channel and in any position within a multi-frame.
Additionally the transmitting modem may opt to send ALE-like parity bit packets in a separate frame and even on another channel within the same multi-frame as the payload data packet to which it belongs. This is indicated by the two packets belonging together carrying the same sequence number. This mechanism is predominantly seen when the link quality deteriorates and consequently the number of re-transmissions increases.


While CODAN-9001 transports data, CODAN CALM (CODAN Automated Link Management) provides the ALE part between the peers. CODAN Chirp uses PSK-2 modulation across 32 channels with 80Hz of spacing and speed of 80 Baud,  and uses ~2600 Hz of bandwidth.


Below a Codan CALM session followed by data sent in Codan 9001 (Egyptian Diplo)

24 October 2014


Russian Navy Morse | BATHY, TESAC, TRACKOB reports and GSVMF

Other than the basic FM 13 weather observations, the oceanographic and hydrographic ships of the Russian Navy send other specialist messages containing information about sea temperature, salinity and current at different depths. Think: salinity and sea temperature versus depth could be vital to a commander of a submarine who needs to hide his boat under a halocline or thermocline layer (it was discovered that thermal layers affect sonar performance; below a thermal layer, a submarine's active sonar performed poorly when trying to acquire a target. Conversely, a surface ship's sonar pings were reflected and scattered by the layer as well, allowing the submarine to hide beneath it).These messages are known as BATHY, TESAC and TRACKOB reports and, as well as the FM 13 ones, are sent to the Hydrographic Service of the Russian Navy. First, let's take a look at this service.

The Hydrographic Service of the Russian Navy (GSVMF) is one of the important national bodies responsible for the safety of navigation. Although the Hydrographic Service forms a part of the Navy, it also meets the requirement of merchant and fishing fleets and vessels of other ministries and agencies.  The Hydrographic Service is under the direction of the Department of Navigation and Oceanography of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense (DNO of the RF MD), which is traditionally located in St Petersburg.

The principle functions of the DNO of the RF MD are:

— to carry out oceanographic, hydrographic and geophysical surveys in the World Ocean
— to compile and produce Nautical Charts, Publications and Guides to Navigation
— to develop and produce Guides, Instructions, Regulations and Methodical Directions on carrying out the World Ocean surveys and processing of their results
— to equip the coast of the Russian Federation by aids to navigation
— to organize mariner notification about changes in navigational conditions and regime
— to develop up navigational instruments and complexes.

As reported by defencerussia "In 2014, survey vessels of three fleets of the Russian Navy will make long trips [...] The main objectives of the campaign are comprehensive oceanographic studies of the Mediterranean Sea, the collection of data for the next hydro-navigation proof nautical charts, manuals and handbooks on shipping, a study of the navigation system, ensuring the presence and demonstration of the flag of the Russian Navy,” the Russian Navy Captain of the 1st Rank Igor Dygalo said. 
To carry out ocean ographic surveys some special units have been created as a part of the Hydrographic Service of the Navy, such as expeditions and parties. 
The surveys are being run by oceanographic and hydrographic ships of up to 9000 tons displacement, equipped with modern navigational and oceanographic facilities. Ships may have anti-terror team on board consisting of marines in order to maintain security during the cruise. 

The Oceanographic and Hydrographic observations are sent daily by the Hydrographic ships (FM 13 reports at fixed times 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC) to the ground stations of the GSVMF.  Such messages are not sent directly to ground stations but forwarded via Naval HQs:

RJP99 547 18 4 2214 547 = FOR RJH74 RJH45 = ... (via RIT, NSF HQ Severomorsk)
RMCW 6T2 18 23 16TT 6T2 = SML FOR RJE73 RJH45 =... (via RCV, BSF HQ Sevastopol))

In fact, looking for example at the FM-13 reports (at least here in Southern Europe) you may see that most of these messages almost always report two recipients, mostly RJE73 RJH45 or RJH74 RJH45 usually using the "sml" priority indicator: I do not know if the recipients are local GSVMF offices at each HQ naval bases (RIT, RCV,...) or just GSVMF central offices.
As reported by  planesandstuff site, the observed calls of GSVMF ground stations are:

and  the observed calls related to survey/research ships are:
RFE76 Sibiriyakov
RHO62 Admiral Vladimirskiy
RJP30 Senezh
RJP99 Gorizont (belonging to the Northern Fleet)
RKB92 *
RMCW Donuzlav (belonging to the Black Sea Fleet)
RMX62 *
(* = not confirmed)


The BATHY, TESAC and TRACKOB reports are described here with tables and instructions about their decode: the data collected by these reports are sumarized below (from the same source).

The BATHY report should be used for recording temperature observations versus depth taken with instruments which provide the temperature with a resolution of 0.1 degrees Celsius or less, such as mechanical or expendable Bathythermographs, thermistor chains or others. The TESAC report should be used for temperature values with a higher resolution and/or when salinity or current versus depth are reported (see later). In addition to the temperature information, the BATHY report makes provision for encoding sea-surface current measurements and depth to the bottom, as well as other environmental information. 
Report information is designed according to the reporting code FM 63-X Ext BATHY.

The TESAC report should be used if one or all of the following data sets are available: Temperature versus depth with a resolution of 0.01 degrees Celsius, Temperature and salinity versus depth, Current versus depth. 
Report information is designed according to the reporting code FM 64-IX TESAC.

example of a TESAC message (from planesandstuff)

1836z RJP99 911 28 4 2216 911 = FOR RJH74 RJH45 =
KKXX 04093 1545/ 17000 03601 88870
20000 31149 20010 31110 20020 31096
20030 30876 20050 30402 22075 30344
30100 30344 20?43 30288 00000 55555
10144 04025 = + RJP99

The TRACKOB report should be used for recording of conventional oceanographic observations at the sea surface taken along a ship's track. The report form permits the collection and transmission of one or more parameters such as water temperature and/or salinity and/or ocean currents in terms of direction and speed.

It is designed to report spot values as well as averaged data over a selected time period. The instruments used should provide the temperature with a resolution of 0.1 degrees Celsius or less, the salinity in 0.01 of practical salinity units, the current speed with a resolution of 0.1 metres/second or 0.1 knots, and the current direction to at least 10°.
Report information is designed according to the reporting code FM 62-VIII Ext. TRACKOB. 
Mediterranean hydrographic vessel “Donuzlav” (defencerussia.wordpress.com)

21 October 2014

Logs: 19-20 October

04372.0    XSS   :    DHFCS Forest Moor, G 2133 ALE/USB sndg 19/10/14           
04380.0    124   :    Enigma M12 2108 CW "124 124 124 T T T 124 124 124 T T T" 19/10/14           
05341.0    ---    :    Russian Mil unid 2045 AT-3004D (CIS-12) modem encrypted tfc nd 20/10/14           
07038.7    D      :    MX Beacon "D" 2125 CW id 20/10/14           
07673.0    ---    :    MFA Bern, SUI 1304 USB/MIL-STD 188-110A/1200L msgs 20/10/14           
07732.0    CS004A    :    unid network 1307 ALE/USB clg BS008C1 20/10/14           
07732.0    CS004A    :    unid network 1134 ALE/USB clg RS0014D + MIL-STD 188-110A/2400L msgs 20/10/14           
07744.0    CS002 :    unid network 1353 ALE/USB clg RS0011 20/10/14           
08484.0    HLG    :    Seoul Radio, KOR 1555 CW "VVV VVV VVV DE HLG HLG HLG" 19/10/14           
08672.2    ---      :    unid 1535 STANAG-4285/600L/USB encrypted 19/10/14           
08701.0    CTA08 :    NATO Lissabon (Monsanto), POR 1948 STANAG-4285/ISB/600L/5N1 (CARBS on LSB) 20/10/14           
08780.0    ---      :    Israeli Navy, ISR 2010 MIL-STD 188-110A/QPSK Hybrid Modem msgs nd 20/10/14           
09183.0    COFNEXERCIC:    unid network 1313 ALE/USB cld CLM352EXERCIC no reply 19/10/14           
11178.0    ---      :    unid TADIL-A (NATO) modem 1125 LINK-11/SLEW nd 19/10/14   

19 October 2014

Logs: 12-18 October

02663.0    IPC    :    Crotone Radio, I 1947 USB sea bulletin in Italian (13Oct14) (AAI)
02673.0    ZPRI    :    ZOLL Zollboot Priwall, D 1930 ALE/USB clg ZLST (13Oct14) (AAI)
05298.0    KW7    :    Polish Mil 1855 1855 ALE/USB clg NO1 (12Oct14) (AAI)
05410.0    4216    :    Sonatrach, ALG 0041 ALE/USB sndg (18Oct14) (AAI)
05410.0    402?    :    Sonatrach, ALG 0036 ALE/USB sndg (18Oct14) (AAI)
05410.0    4237    :    Sonatrach, ALG 0035 ALE/USB sndg (18Oct14) (AAI)
05410.0    421?    :    Sonatrach, ALG 0034 ALE/USB sndg (18Oct14) (AAI)
05410.0    424?    :    Sonatrach, ALG 0024 ALE/USB sndg (18Oct14) (AAI)
07910.0    ---    :    unid Russian modem 2045 3-channel VFT idling (16Oct14) (AAI)
08316.0    ---    :    unit TADIL Modem (NATO) 1240 LINK-11/ISB idling (16Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    OFFNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Offutt, NE 0423 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0407 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    PLANPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Lajes, AZR 0336 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0324 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    OFFNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Offutt, NE 0323 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0306 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0236 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0206 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    ICZNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Sigonella, I 0140 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0137 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    CRONPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Croughton, G 0136 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0106 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    ICZNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Sigonella, I 0040 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 0036 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    CRONPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Croughton, G 0023 ALE/USB sndg (15Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    TSCP    :    US Army Aviation Camp Bondsteel, KOS 2351 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    ICZNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Sigonella, I 2340 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 2335 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    CRONPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Croughton, G 2323 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    TSCP    :    US Army Aviation Camp Bondsteel, KOS 2321 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 2305 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    TSCP    :    US Army Aviation Camp Bondsteel, KOS 2251 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    ICZNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Sigonella, I 2240 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08965.0    JNRNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Salinas, PTR 2235 ALE/USB sndg (14Oct14) (AAI)
08986.6    MKL    :    RAF Northwood, G 2155 STANAG-4481/FSK KG-84 Messages (14Oct14) (AAI)
10543.0    RCV    :    Russian Navy BSF HQ Sevastopol, UKR 1539 CW "RHL8Ø DE RCV QYT4 QSX 5322 k" (12Oct14) (AAI)
10543.0    XSS    :    DHFCS Forest Moor, G 1417 ALE/USB sndg (12Oct14) (AAI)
11155.0    RIT    :    Rus Navy NSF HQ Severomorsk, RUS 1512 CW "RFE76 RFE76 DE RIT RIT QSA3 QRV K" (18Oct14) (AAI)
11171.7    ---    :    MFA Cairo, EGY 2155 ARQ/Sitor-A ending msg "hpdj tys lus kjkg kddr yks yks yks" (16Oct14) (AAI)
11175.0    Mainsail    :    USAF-HFCGS 1435 USB EAM "VLB2FVNJAMNIMYHIVUPDUKUN2PTNMM" (13Oct14) (AAI)
11226.0    ICZNPR    :    USAF-NIPRnet Sigonella, I 1414 ALE/USB sndg (13Oct14) (AAI)
11318.0    RQCI    :    Samara VOLMET, RUS 1417 USB female Aviation weather in Russian (13Oct14) (AAI)
12315.0    ABA    :    Malta Armed Forces HQ, MLT 1154 ALE/USB clg AB1 (14Oct14) (AAI)
12376.5    XSA    :    DHFCS unid entity, G 1242 ALE/USB sndg (17Oct14) (AAI)
12376.5    XSS    :    DHFCS Forest Moor, G 1213 ALE/USB sndg (17Oct14) (AAI)
12464.0    RFE76    :    Russiav Navy Sibiriyakov 1205 CW "829 17 17 1610 829 = ...99365 70011...22222" (17Oct14) (AAI)
12464.0    RFE76    :    Russian Navy ship 1807 CW "RIT DE RFE76 RFE76 QSA? QTC K" (14Oct14) (AAI)
12464.0    RMCW    :    Russian Navy Donuzlav 1206 CW "VVV RCV DE RMCW QSA? QTC K" (13Oct14) (AAI)
12599.5    UAT    :    Moscow Radio, RUS 1145 ARQ/Sitor-A sending instructions for users (13Oct14) (AAI)
13044.0    BEG    :    Russian Navy ship 1255 CW in progress "...= AR RBEG K" (13Oct14) (AAI)
13404.0    NTLZ    :    Russian Mil (?) 1332 CW "NTLZ R 831 K" (17Oct14) (AAI)
14664.0    RDL    :    Russian Navy Smolensk,Rus 1257 BEE/50/200 Sync 0x45052fafa54 (12Oct14) (AAI)
16207.0    RIT    :    Russian Navy Severomorsk,Rus 1315 BEE/50/200 Sync 0x1eb41eb2952 (12Oct14) (AAI)
16341.7    ---    :    MFA Cairo, EGY 1320 ARQ Sitor-A/100/170 clg Egyptian embassy Manama Bahrain (12Oct14) (AAI)
16553.5    ---    :   
Japanese Navy Misaki, J 1410 USB 8-MFSK/300Hz spaced (12Oct14) (AAI)

15 October 2014


STANAG-4481 is a NATO standard for maritime shore-to-ship broadcast digital data communication. Data are sent by a single land-based transmitting station and received by many stations aboard ships. There are two variants, one with a FSK modulated signal and the other one with PSK modulation.
The FSK variant is a synchronous FSK mode, which uses KG-84C encryption for communication. Although Baud rate and other parameters are settable, 75 Bd and 850 Hz shift values are widely used.

The KG-84 bit stream contains a 64 bits long header followed by two 256 bit message blocks in turn followed by encrypted data terminated by an End-Of-Message. Hence synchronization can only be achieved at the start of transmission using the KG-84 header.
The length of a message is variable. Messages are usually sent consecutively with a short idle sequence between each message.

The KG-84 bit stream contains a 64 bits long header followed by two 256 bit message blocks in turn followed by encrypted data terminated by an End-Of-Message. Hence synchronization can only be achieved at the start of transmission using the KG-84 header.
The length of a message is variable. Messages are usually sent consecutively with a short idle sequence between each message.

Below, a STANAG-4481/FSK transmission from MKL: RAF Northwood on 8996.0 KHz at 2155z: note the KG-84C header just at the start of the transmission:

RAF Northwood (MKL)

Royal Navy Plymouth (MTI)

14 October 2014

categorie delle navi militari

Con il crescente interesse verso l'ascolto della Marina Militare Russa, mi sono reso conto della mia scarsissima conoscenza delle varie categorie delle navi militari in termini di ruoli e impieghi (salvo per le portaerei, il cui ruolo e' chiaro anche a un bambino).
Cosi' mi sono messo a "saccheggiare" qualche sito specializzato e mi sono scritto qui le varie definizioni che ho trovato e riassunto. Le informazioni riportate sono molto succinte e incomplete specialmente per quanto riguarda le varie sottocategorie di ciascuna categoria principale. Ma tant' è! le definizioni sono piu' che sufficienti - credo - per il pubblico di noi SWL che piuttosto che nel mare navighiamo nelle HF.
Poi ci sarebbe da obbiettare che navigare e' un verbo transitivo, cosi' che si dovrebbe a ragione dire "navigare il mare" ...ma questa e' un'altra storia.

In Italia viene definita imbarcazione una generica unità galleggiante avente dimensioni inferiori ai 24 m (limite dimensionale oltre il quale si parla invece di nave) e superiori ai 10 m (sotto i quali si parla invece di natante), indipendentemente dai sistemi di propulsione utilizzati (vela, motore, remi, etc...).

Sinonimi: boat, craft, ship, vessel

Carrier (Portaerei)
Una portaerei è una nave da guerra il cui ruolo principale è il trasporto in zona di operazioni, lancio e recupero di aeroplani, agendo in effetti come una base aerea capace di muoversi in mare. Le portaerei permettono pertanto ad una forza navale di proiettare la propria potenza aerea fino a grandi distanze senza dover dipendere da basi terrestri locali per gli aerei.

Cruiser (Incrociatore)
Nella terminologia militare moderna un incrociatore è una grande nave da guerra in grado di ingaggiare bersagli multipli simultaneamente. Storicamente era considerata la più piccola nave capace di azioni indipendenti — a differenza del cacciatorpediniere che di solito richiede l'assistenza esterna di navi appoggio — ma nell'accezione moderna questa differenza è scomparsa.

Destroyer (Cacciatorpediniere)
Un cacciatorpediniere è una nave da guerra veloce e manovrabile, dotata comunque di grande autonomia, progettata per scortare vascelli di dimensioni maggiori in una flotta o gruppo di battaglia e difenderli contro attaccanti più piccoli ed a corto raggio d'azione (originariamente le torpediniere, successivamente sottomarini e aerei).

Torpedo (Torpediniera)
Una torpediniera, normalmente abbreviata TP, è una nave relativamente piccola e veloce progettata per lanciare siluri contro navi di superficie di dimensioni maggiori. Fu creata per contrastare le corazzate e altre navi grandi, pesanti e potentemente armate, sfruttando la sua maggiore velocità ed agilità.
L'introduzione delle torpediniere causò un incremento di attività nelle flotte di tutto il mondo, mentre cannoni più piccoli e rapidi vennero aggiunti alle navi esistenti per tenere a bada la nuova minaccia. Infine venne creata un'intera nuova classe di navi, i cacciatorpediniere per contrastarle. Queste furono semplicemente versioni ingrandite delle torpediniere, capaci della stessa velocità ma armate di cannoni più pesanti, in grado di distruggerle prima che potessero avvicinarsi alla flotta principale. I cacciatorpediniere vennero armati anch'essi con siluri. Uno sforzo considerevole venne speso nell'ideare azioni di flotta che permettessero ai cacciatorpediniere di operare ad una distanza sufficiente dal gruppo principale della flotta per tenere a bada le torpediniere, rimanendo comunque abbastanza vicini da non poter essere sorpresi allo scoperto da una flotta avversaria.
I cacciatorpediniere apparvero così utili e più versatili delle torpediniere, possedendo una miglior capacità di tenere il mare e così infine le rimpiazzarono

Frigate (Fregata)
Nella moderna terminologia militare, il termine fregata si riferisce a una nave da guerra destinata a proteggere altre navi da guerra o navi mercantili e come combattente nella anti-submarine warfare (ASW, "guerra antisommergibile") per le forze della spedizione anfibia, per il gruppo di rifornimento e i convogli mercantili.

Corvette (Corvetta)
Attualmente la corvetta si situa come dimensioni e capacità tra i pattugliatori e le fregate. Solitamente ha un dislocamento compreso tra le 450 e le 2.000 tonnellate e una lunghezza che varia tra i 55 e 100 m. L'armamento è costituito da cannoni di piccolo calibro e missili superficie-aria e superficie-superficie oltre ad apparecchiature antisommergibile. Le più grandi possono essere dotate di un elicottero di piccole dimensioni.

Patrol, Gunboat (Pattugliatore)
I pattugliatori sono delle unità navali specializzate, come il nome lascia intendere, in compiti di pattugliamento, adibita o concepita per compiti di sorveglianza marittima, specificamente della zona economica esclusiva. Generalmente sono unità litoranee d'attacco veloci e possono essere in dotazione alla Marina, alla guardia costiera o delle forze di polizia, per essere impiegate nel pattugliamento marittimo sia d'altura che costiero sia in quello fluviale e in vari ruoli di protezione delle frontiere marittime, comprese misure anti-droga, anti-contrabbando, anti-pirateria, di vigilanza pesca e per l'applicazione della legge in materia di immigrazione e spesso partecipano alle operazioni di ricerca in mare e di salvataggio. Anche se generalmente non sono dotati di mezzi antisommergibile,in alcune configurazioni possono venire impiegati come cacciasommergibili

Landing ship,  Amphibious ship (nave da sbarco, unita' anfibie)
Questo tipo di navi è di grandi dimensioni e con dislocamento a pieno carico generalmente di oltre 10.000 tonnellate. La sua capacità di carica varia da un modello all'altro, ma generalmente è di vari elicotteri che fanno parte dell'equipaggiamento della nave, centinaia di soldati imbarcati e carri e veicoli da combattimento della forza anfibia.
Per lo sbarco possono essere utilizzate le gru del ponte, gli elicotteri o le lance da sbarco attraverso il bacino allagabile di cui molte di queste navi dispongono e che si trova nella parte posteriore della nave, che inondandosi permette l'uscita dei veicoli anfibi che trasporta.

12 October 2014

Logs: 06-11 October

02632.0    IQH    : Napoli Radio, I 2037 USB female sea bulletin in Italian 10/10/14 (AAI)               
04055.2    DHJ58    : German Navy Gluecksburg, D 2155 USB/STANAG-4285/600L encrypted 11/10/14 (AAI)               
04521.0    REA4    : Russian Air Force HQ Moscow, RUS 2140 CW in progress "71 9T 41 T1 22 TT 22 J = REA4 k" 10/10/14 (AAI)               
04553.5    ZLST    : Zoll Leitstelle Cuxhaven, D 2105 ALE/USB clg ZKNI 10/10/14 (AAI)               
04576.2    ---    : unid NATO modem 2137 USB/STANAG-4285/600L encrypted 11/10/14 (AAI)               
04643.0    ---    : unid NATO modem 2140 USB/STANAG-4285/1200L encrypted 11/10/14 (AAI)               
04731.0    ---    : unid (prob. NATO) 2046 FSK/75/850 encrypted msgs and "RRRRRRRRRRRRR" 07/10/14 (AAI)               
05090.0    ---    : Swiss diplo, SUI 2127 USB/ALE Link protected 11/10/14 (AAI)               
06549.6    PRV    : experimental beacon Preveza, GRC 2003 CW "PRV" 07/10/14 (AAI)               
07668.0    ---    : Swiss Diplo, SUI 2036 USB/ALE Link protected 10/10/14 (AAI)               
09295.0    ITHNY    : US National Guard, Ithaca NY 0317 ALE/USB sndg 07/10/14 (AAI)               
11279.0    VFG    : Gander Radio, CAN 2133 USB female "Gander Radio Gander Radio number 334" 07/10/14 (AAI)               
11300.0    ---    : AFI-3 Khartoum LDOC 2116 USB female working MKK-215 07/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RME81    : Russian Navy ship 1228 CW "VVV RIW RIW RIW DE RME81 RME81 QSA? K" 08/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RMRV    : Russian Navy Smolny 1240 CW "RIW RIW RIW DE RMRV RMRV QSA? K" 08/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RMWT    : Russian Navy ship 1215 CW "VVV RIT RIT RIT DE RMWT RMWT QSA? QTC K" 09/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RCVW    : Russian Navy, Donuzlav 1225 CW "SML FOR RJE73 RJH45 = 07121 99394 10254...22253..." 07/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RMCW    : Russian Navy Donuzlav 1204 CW "RCV RCV DE RMCW RMCW QSA? QTC K" 08/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RFE76    : Russian Navy Sibiriyakov 1212 CW "RIT RIT DE RFE76 RFE76 QSA? QTC K" 08/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RMWT    : Russian Navy ship 1218 CW "771 19 9 1551 771 ...99548 10198...22242...AR RMWT K" 09/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RMCW    : Russian Navy Donuzlav 1203 CW "99316 10321 ...22200 ... =+RMCW K" 10/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RMCW    : Russian Navy Donuzlav 1250 CW "75T 37 8 1644 75T = TT254 25T42 71549...=+RMCW K" 08/10/14 (AAI)               
12464.0    RFE76    : Russian Navy Sibiriyakov 1207 CW "RIT DE RFE76 QSA? QTC K" 11/10/14 (AAI)               
12557.0    ---    : unid ship 1230 ARQ/100/170 selcals MKCV (Istanbul/TAH) 11/10/14 (AAI)               
12599.5    UAT    : Moscow Radio, RUS 1155 CW/ARQ "DE UAT" 08/10/14 (AAI)               
13200.0    Mainsail: NCS USAF HF-GCS 1335 USB SKYKING 7UX 59 XU 10/10/14 (AAI)               
13227.0    NAU    : US Navy Isabela, PTR 2055 USB/STANAG-4285/600L encrypted 11/10/14 (AAI)               
16174.7    D    : D cluster beacon 1325 CW 10/10/14 (AAI)               
16283.6    KWX90    :Dept of State, US Embassy 1411 ALE/USB clg KWX92 08/10/14 (AAI)               
16283.6    KWX90    : Dept of State, US Embassy 1420 ALE/USB clg KWT50 08/10/14 (AAI)

NAU: US Navy Isabela, PTR

11 October 2014

Rivet e i suoi modi

Tralasciando i networks in Morse/CW, ci occuperemo oggi del decoder Rivet e della decodifica dei seguenti sistemi:

CIS36-50 (in LF a 36 baud, in HF a 50 baud): Russian Navy
CROWD36Russian Gov/Intel
XPA (10 e 20 baud): Russian Gov/Intel (*)
XPA2: Russian Gov/Intel (*)

(*) impiego non confermato da fonti ufficiali ma stimato tale

Il decoder che impiegheremo per la decodifica e' Rivet: decoder scritto in Java e quindi eseguibile su qualsiasi PC dove e' installata la Java Virtual Machine (java VM): nel caso mancasse, basta andare sul sito ufficiale di Java www.java.com   per il suo download e installazione in maniera del tutto automatica. L'ultima versione di Rivet e' la build_88 del Dicembre 2013, scaricabile da questo indirizzo: 
essendo scritto in java, Rivet ha l'estensione .jar quindi non preoccupatevi se non vedere nessun file exe. Sacricatelo sul desktop e, come ogni altro programma, eseguitelo con il solito doppio click sull'icona.
Andiamo a vedere le principali opzioni del menu' ed il loro impiego.


Copy All to the Clipboard
L'intero contenuto della finestra di output viene copiati negli appunti. Utile se si desidera includere una sezione di una decodifica da Rivet in un documento mail o word processor.

Load a WAV File
Rivet decodifica non solo l'audio proveniente dal ricevitore ma può anche decodificare i dati contenuti in file WAV registrato in precedenza. Si noti che Rivet e' in grado di decodificare solo file WAV che sono stati registrati in modalità mono e in determinate frequenze di campionamento (di solito 8000 Hz).

Reset Decoding State
Se questa voce di menu è selezionata, Rivet ripristina le impostazioni predefinite per il modo correntemente selezionato.

Save the Current Settings
Permette il salvataggio di tutte le impostazioni selezionate (modalità, ecc) nel file "rivet_settings.xml". Al successivo riavvio, Rivet caricherà quelle impostazioni e le usera' come predefinite.

Save to File
Quando questa opzione è abilitata tutto il traffico che viene decodificato da Rivet sarà salvato in un file di testo ASCII. Quando si seleziona questa opzione viene mostratala richiesta del nome e del percorso del file.
Save Bit Stream to File
Permette il salvataggio in un file (prefisso .bsf) dei dati binari. Utile per l'analisi e il reverse engineering di una modalita' sconosciuta.
Soundcard Input
Quando questa opzione è abilitata Rivet accettera' l'audio dalla sorgente audio selezionata dal vostro mixer PC.

Audio Devices
Consente di indicare a Rivet l'ingresso, fra quelli disponibili sul vostro PC, da dove prelevare il segnale da decodificare


Useremo questo menu' per selezionare il sistema che vogliamo decodificare. Rivet non ha ne' spettro ne' waterfall e non ha bisogno di centrature di frequenze (lo fa' automaticamente) ma solo l'indicazione, tramite appunto l'opzione modes, di cosa si vuole decodificare. Oltre alle modalita' citate all'inizio, Rivet consente la decodifica  di:

CCIR493-4 : un particolare selective calling usato in HF
FSK200/500 : Russian Diplo e intelligence messages
FSK200/1000 : Russian Diplo e intelligence messages
FSK (raw) : per utenti esperti, consente la investigazione di sistemi FSK
GW FSK (100 baud) : Sistema di comunicazione ship to shore

Consente di impostare alcuni parametri per la corretta decodifica di una trasmissione. Per i nostri scopi, segnalo in particolare:
CIS36-50 Options
Permette di impostare il valore di shift (default 200 Hz) (vedi piu' avanti)

Set the CROWD36 High Sync Tone
Permette di impostare il numero (0-34) del tono piu' alto di sincronizzazione che viene utilizzato  nella trasmissione CROWD36 che stiamo ricevendo, default 24 (vedi piu' avanti)

Finestra di output di Rivet