28 February 2015

Russian T-206/Moroz: FSK 45.55 and 54.84 baud (in idling mode)

Some of the Russian modes have names like "Frost" or "Moroz" that are given by the hobbysts community, but only when the actual designation is unknown. "Moroz" is just a nickname for one of the Russian T-206 modem variant: T-206 is an FSK ITA2-based system with a 50 Baud speed, 500 Hz shift. Basically used in a Point-To-Point environment.

Afaik are there these versions of the Russian T206 modem:

T-206 Moroz-1
T-206 Moroz-2
T-206 Moroz-2 RU-Belarus AF
T-206M (3M1) (7 types)
T-206M (3M1) RU MVD
T-206M RU AF Moscow
T-206M2 Far East

Due segnali FSK 500Hz shift, il primo a sinistra con frequenza centrale (cf) 13390.0 KHz ed il secondo a destra con cf 14830.0 KHz, che ad una prima "svogliata" occhiata possono sembrare uguali... ma non lo sono.

Two FSK signals 500Hz shift, the first on the left with center frequency (cf) 13390.0 kHz and the second on the right with cf 14830.0 kHz, which at first "listless" glance may look like the same ... but they are not.

sopra riportati sul waterfall o sonogramma audio (frequenza/tempo) mentre qui sotto riportati nello spettro audio  (frequeza/ampiezza):
as shown above in the waterfall and below in the spectrum:

I due sistemi sono in idle, ovvero non stanno trasmettendo traffico ma solo i cosiddetti reversals, magari piu' noti in ambito RTTY come la sequenza di RYRYRYRYRY. Lo si intuisce sia dal "suono" costante e monotono udibile dopo la demodulazione, sia dalle tracce "a" e "b" indicate sul waterfall che rappresentano la manipolazione (keying) dei dati. Sono proprio queste tracce che in qualche modo solleticano la curiosita' dell'ascoltatore utility: come visibile, hanno "spessore" differente e questo puo' anche NON essere dovuto all'energia contenuta nel segnale MA al diverso baud-rate impiegato dai due sistemi.
The two systems are idling, they are not sending traffic but only reversals, also known as the RTTY sequence RYRYRYRYRYIt is these traces that somehow tickle the curiosity of the UTE-listener: as visible, they have different "thickand this could be due to the different energy contained in the signals but also to a different key manipulation used by the two systems.
La conferma, se cosi' si puo' chiamare, viene dalla misurazione dello shift e del baud-rate dei due segnali: 
So, go on measuring shift and baud rate of the two signals:

1) per il segnale FSK a 13390.0 KHz si rileva una velocita' di 54.84 baud in idling mode
the signal at 13390.0 KHz shows a 54.84 baud speed in idling mode

2) per il segnale FSK a 14830.0 KHz si rileva una velocita' di 44.55 baud in idling mode
the signal at 14830.0 KHz shows a 44.55 baud speed in idling mode

Entrabi i segnali hanno ACF =2 (Auto Correlation Frequency) in idling mode:
Both the signals have an ACF =2 (Auto Correlation Frequency)  in idling mode

In conclusione, i due sistemi sono due varianti del sistema T206-MOROZ Russo, molto probabilmente usati da stazioni Point-To-Point, e piu' precisamente riportati a log come:T
The two systems are two variants of the Russian T600 / MOROZ, most likely used by Point-To-Point stations, and reported in the log as
13390.0 --- Russian PtP station, RUS 0915z Moroz 54.84bd/500 ACF =2 in idling
14830.0 --- Russian PtP station, RUS 0925z Moroz 44.55bd/500 ACF =2 in idling

Naturalmente, la velocita' in baud cambiera' nel passaggio da idle a traffic... ma durante un monitoraggio di circa due ore le due stazioni hanno continuato a trasmettere reversals.
Of course, their will change switching from idling to traffic mode ... but during the monitoring time (two hours or so) the stations continued to broadcast reversals.

27 February 2015

Logs: 23-26 February

05116.1 ---: unid 2135 FSK 200bd/200 (sounding like Pactor-I) but not decodable (25Feb15) (AAI)
05305.5 ---: Russian Mil (reported as "RJP" area of Bibirevo Shat'kovo), RUS 2115 FSK 48bd/250 idling (25Feb15) (AAI)
08971.0 ---: unid NATO Tactical Data Link 1405 LINK-11/Slew in traffic (25Feb15) (AAI)
09202.0 ---: unid NATO Tactical Data Link 1420 LINK-11/Slew ISB in traffic (25Feb15) (AAI)
10074.0 5CIN1D: unid asset/network 1236 USB MIL-188-141A clg 5CIN2D + handshake then STANAG-4285 single burst (26Feb15) (AAI)
10114.7 ---: Russian Long Range Aviation Command, RUS 0700 FSK 100bd/1000 traffic not decoded (26Feb15) (AAI)
10169.5 ---: unid 0645 FSK 100bd/2000 traffic and idles, not decoded (26Feb15) (AAI)
10175.0 334013: Turkish Emergency Malatya, TUR 1230 USB MIL-188-141A sndg (26Feb15) (AAI)
10370.0 SNB813: Polish Military, POL 1231 USB MIL-188-141A clg SPT424 + handshake (26Feb15) (AAI)
14557.0 ---: Russian Long Range Aviation Command, RUS 1350 FSK 100bd/1000 idling (26Feb15) (AAI)
15483.1 ---: Russian Intel/Diplo 1340 FSK 200bd/1000 (cf) Link ID 49237:26th of month:Msg Number 235 Type 07145 (26Feb15) (AAI)
16161.0 20001: unid asset/network 1447 MIL-188-141A clg 5601 (23Feb15) (AAI)
17052.0 4XZ: Israeli Navy Haifa, ISR 1352 CW "= = VVV DE 4XZ 4XZ" (25Feb15) (AAI)
19632.6 M51: French MIL Intel Favieres, F 1405 CW 5LGs offline crypto (23Feb15) (AAI)
19794.0 XSG: Shangai Radio, CHN 1415 J3E female voice + id tones (23Feb15) (AAI)

unid FMCW OTH double-signal radar

Just another double OTH radar signal, mode FMCW, up-chirped, about 635 Khz spaced.The two signals have different sweep-rates (25 and 50 sps) and spread same 20 Khz band.
I think that the two visible bursts could be their related sounders, but Im not sure. These two sounders both run at 40 sweep/sec, 10 Khz bandwidth.

Below the analisys of the two (in my opinion) burst sounders:

22 February 2015

unid FMCW OTH double-signal radar and related sounders

interesting pair of signals (indicated by 'a' and 'b'), FMCW and 500 kHz spaced, most likely from the same OTH Radar (RAF Cyprus ?). Both occupy 20 kHz of bandwidth with 25 sps sweep-rate.
The left signal (a) is 'down-chirped' (sweeps start from the higher frequency and terminate at the lower frequency, ie descending freq.) while the right one (b) is 'up-chirped' (ascending freq.)

Note the two sounders of this radar: they start and stop at frequencies which are equidistant from the two signals (in a neighborhood of the two signals) and have the same chirp pattern (down and up) of the two radar signals to which they are subservient.

It could be assumed the that the frequency management of the doubled radar signal is achieved just by using these sounder.

"Ghadir": Iranian OTH burst radar

Ghadir, the Over The Horizon (OTH) Radar from Iran, is daily transmitting on our 10 m-band, often long lasting on 28245 kHz. 

You can hear a high and a low tone, corresponding to the sweeprates of 870 and 307 sweeps/sec. sent in two separated bursts. The system is  about 60 kHz wide, the splatters are covering +/- 250 kHz.
In June 2014, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corp Aerospace Force (IRGC-ASF) unveiled the ‘Ghadir’ over-the-horizon (OTH) radar at an undisclosed site near the city of Garmsar in the Semnan province east of Tehran. According to media reports, the Ghadir is a 360°, 3D-radar, with a ceiling of 300 km, and a maximum range of 1,100 km.

The site itself is located about 13 km southeast of the city itself, where the county’s rural farmland meets the desert. Google Earth offers imagery of the site from 09/2009, 08/2011, and 07/2013. The site is isolated, with no nearby garrisons or other air-defense sites.
Contradicting media reports, which claim that the radar was first tested during the Payambar-e Azam 6 exercises in June 2011, imagery from 08/2011 shows that construction had not yet begun by this time.

Logs: 15-20 February

10223.7 --- MFA Cairo, EGY 2020 USB ARQ/Sitor-A 100bd/170 wkg Washington  (15Feb15) (AAI)
10467.5 --- unid NATO station 1255 USB STANAG-4285 null traffic, idling (20Feb15) (AAI)
10713.0 SPT424 Polish Military, POL USB MIL-188-141A clg SNB813 then voice chat (16Feb15) (AAI)
13714.2 --- Russian Intel/Diplo 1335 USB AT-3004D 12-PSK tones modem (16Feb15) (AAI)
15920.0 CFH Canadian Forces, Halifax C 1305 USB FSK 75bd/850 NAWS DE CFH (20Feb15) (AAI)
16154.0 --- Russian Intel/Diplo 1332 USB FSK 200bd/1000 messages blocks on Link ID 49237(19Feb15) (AAI)
16344.0 --- Russian Intel/Diplo 1405 USB Serdolik/CROWD-36 (19Feb15) (AAI)
19890.2 --- UK MIL DHFCS, probably Akrotiri 1305 USB STANAG-4285/1200L encrypted (19Feb15) (AAI)
22910.0 NKW US Navy Diego Garcia, DGI 1247 USB FSK 50bd/850 in traffic // 22741.0 (19Feb15) (AAI)
20981.0 --- unid NATO station 1300 USB STANAG-4285/1200L encrypted (19Feb15) (AAI)

19 February 2015

CIS-45 v1 HDR modem 33.33 Bd BPSK stream

Number of channels: 45 + 1 pilot tone (~ 3300 Hertz)
Manipulation in the channels: 2-PSK
Step between channels (frequency net/grid): 62.5 Hz
Manipulation speed (Baud rate): 33.33

The signal has the same features of CIS-45 Version 1 burst-mode, but here it is used in stream-mode. This is the third variant I have seen of CIS-45 modem other than CIS-45 v2 (40 Bd stream) and CIS-45 v1 (33.33 Bd burst)

18 February 2015

unid FMCW down-chirp OTH radar

This OTH radar was noted on 29790.0 Khz (center frequency), bandwidth about 20 Khz and mode FMCW. The sweep-rate of the system, at least at this scan session,  was 25 sweeps/sec.

The spectrum reveals two interesting features related to the heard scan-session:

1) the sweeps are down-chirp, i.e. the signal varies it frequency from the higher value to the lower value;

2) looking more closely at the spectrum by zooming a portion of frequency, we may see not only the short-path (direct) signal, obviously, but also the back scatter signals (the returned echoes)  that are characterized by very low values of energy. This is clearly visible below:

16 February 2015

multi-waveform sounder

heard on 9970.0 KHz (cf), about 3.6 Khz badwidth. The sounder consists of a "train" of n different length bursts, each burst has different sweep-rate and ends with a 200 msec tone, last tone is 380 msec width.Unfortunatelly, I went into this transmission when the sounder was still on-air, so I had the time to observe only the last three bursts, below reported as burst n-2, burst n-1 and burst n
Below the analysis of the bursts, as precise as possible since my resources; as you may see, this is an FMCW system:

burst n-2

burst n-1

burst n

The scan session is characterized by descending sweep-rates (about: 16 -> 10 -> 4 sweeps/sec), I think it's oriented to test different propagations conditions at that same frequency but with different sweep-rates.
I hope to hear again this sounder so to write a better and complete analysis.

13 February 2015

Logs: 09-13 February

14430.0 CHL: Algerian Air Force, ALG 1241 USB MIL-188-141A clg COF (12Feb15) (AAI)
14550.0 X24: Moroccan military, MRC 1230 USB MIL-188-141A sndg (13Feb15) (AAI)
14550.0 R31: Moroccan military, MRC 1234 USB MIL-188-141A sndg (13Feb15) (AAI)
14550.0 J62: Moroccan military, MRC 1238 USB MIL-188-141A sndg (13Feb15) (AAI)
14550.0 O73: Moroccan military, MRC 1239 USB MIL-188-141A sndg (13Feb15) (AAI)
14485.0 ---: unid 1255 USB FSK/50bd/500 reversals (12Feb15) (AAI)
16074.0 ---: Russian Mil, RUS 1535 USB FSK 75bd/500 (09Feb15) (AAI)
16145.0 ---: Russian Diplo/Intel 1207 USB MFSK/CROWD-36 (11Feb15) (AAI)
16381.5 ---: unid North Korean Embassy 1300 LSB ARQ FSK/600bd/600 (aka DPRK-ARQ) bursts s/off 1310 (12Feb15) (AAI)
16913.0 ---: prob. Australian Def. Force North West Cape, AUS 1325 USB MIL 188-110A 2400bd (12Feb15) (AAI)
20280.0 ---: prob. Australian Def. Force North West Cape, AUS 1550 USB MIL 188-110A 2400bd (09Feb15) (AAI)

unid FMOP OTH radar 16Kz BW, 50 sps

looking at the spectrum you may see that the tansmitter is off air between sweeps (duty clycle < 100%):  this leads to an FMOP system and then possibly sourced by Russian mil (50 sweeps/sec variant of 29B6 Kontainer ?)

The signal was copied on 14574.0 Khz (cf) and spreads up to 16 Khz bandwidth. It has a sweep-rate of 50 sweeps/sec and transmits in FMOP mode.

11 February 2015

JORN: Australian Defence Force (ADF) OTH radar

Australia’s Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN) is operated by the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and comprises three Over The Horizon Backscattered Radar systems and forms part of a layered surveillance network providing coverage of Australia’s northern approaches.

JORN is an FMCW "burst system" covering 10 Khz bandwidth with different sweeprates, this feature is clearly visible in its spectrum:

I heard a quite long session from JORN on 11 February, at 1240z on 18589.0 KHz. According to my observations on the received session, the system transmits sequences of 5 bursts on 10KHz bandwidth, each burst contains 64 sweeps and a single sequence is 9.5 seconds long.

Each burst switches the radar swee-prate to short range (high sweprates) and to long range (lower sweeprates) and is "announced" by an intro-tone (a "pilot tone" one ?) at the center QRG: I do not know if these tones are for sync purposes of the receiving system.

b1: 28us sweep width
b2: 24us sweep width
b3: 30us sweep width
b4: 27us sweep width
b5: 25us sweep width

(the accuracy of the measurements depends on me and the used tool)

The Australian Defence Force (ADF) currently operates three OTHR systems as part of the Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN). These radars are dispersed across Australia — at Longreach in Queensland, Laverton in Western Australia and Alice Springs in the Northern Territory — to provide surveillance coverage of Australia’s northern approaches.
• Radar data from these sensors is conveyed to the JORN Coordination Centre (JCC) within the Air Force’s No 1 Radar Surveillance Unit (1RSU) at RAAF Base Edinburgh in South Australia. 1RSU is tasked by higher headquarters to operate the JORN capability on a daily basis.
• JORN does not operate on a 24 hour basis except during military contingencies. Defence’s peacetime use of JORN focuses on those objects that the system has been designed to detect, thus ensuring efficient use of resources.
• The JORN radars have an operating range of 1000–3000km, as measured from the radar array. Figure 2 depicts the locations of the three OTHR systems and the JCC, and highlights the coverage of each radar. Of note, the Alice Springs and Longreach radars cover an arc of 90 degrees each, whereas the Laverton OTHR coverage area extends through 180 degrees.
JORN is expected to detect air objects equivalent in size to a BAe Hawk-127 aircraft or larger and maritime objects equivalent in size and construction to an Armidale-class patrol boat or larger.

JORN is currently undergoing a capability upgrade under JP2025 Phase 5 (1987 Defence White Paper, Joint Project 2025). This project will incrementally deliver a number of capability enhancements to the current JORN radars located at Longreach and Laverton, and will compliment upgrades delivered under Phases 3 and 4 to bring these radars up to the current technological specification of the OTHR at Alice Springs. Phase 5 will also integrate the Alice Spring OTHR into the Jindalee Operational Radar Network.
• The capability upgrade under JP2025 Phase 5 is based on the specifications originally described in the 1987 Department of Defence White Paper, ‘The Defence of Australia’.

9 February 2015

29B6: Russian FMOP OTH Radar "Kontainer"

Russian Air and Space Defense Forces began deployment of a network of 29B6 over-the-horizon (OTH) radars, code-named "Kontainer" in the early 2013. The Russian 29B6 radar is generally less wide than PLUTO, typically around 14 kHz width.

observed on 19475.0 Khz
bandwidth about 14Khz,
modulation: FMOP (Frequency Modulation On Pulse)
sweep-rate: 50 sps

Both the British PLUTO and the Russian 29B6 most often use the sweeprate of 50 sps .This yields a maximum unambiguous range (since neither radar encodes the sweeps) of 3000 km.  The 29B6 uses FMOP (Frequency Modulation On Pulse) while PLUTO uses FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave): while they sound somewhat similar they are slightly different, with the 29B6 having a slightly “rougher” sound than PLUTO,  moreover Russian 29B6 can be harder to visually or aurally define the edges of, so it could be reportsed with a wider width than it is actually using.

The first one began "experimental-combat" operations in Kovylkino, Mordovia, on 2 December 2013. The radar is reported to have a range of about 3000 km, which allows it to detect aircraft over large part of Europe.
video clip introducing the new 29B6 OTH radar installation:

The Kolkino radar station, using the first modernized 29B6 radar, is able to track aerial targets flying as far aways as Denmark. Earlier the radar had a research role only, and even if full operational capability is expected within 2 years, the new system is already keeping an eye on what flies west of the Russian border. Another 29B6 radar should be installed in the far eastern Russian territories, achieving operational status in 2018.

The radar is made of 150 antenna masts, data transmission systems, transmitters and receivers, power station and control building. The peculiarity of the system is that it is able to detect both high altitude targets, such as ICBMs (Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles), as well as low altitude flying air traffic, at very long distances, well beyond the line of sight.
Based on the Russian claims reported by Defence24.pl, any aircraft with a radar cross section comparable to the one of a Cessna light plane would be detected by the new radar, even if it is flying at low altitude. Even a fighter jet taking-off in the Netherlands could be seen by the new surveillance station!




The British Royal Airforce is operating the so-named PLUTO OTH Radar in their base in Akrotiri, Cyprus. It is often on 10, 21 and 28 MHz HAM bands with sweeprates of 25 and 50 sweeps/sec, sometimes 12.5 sweeps/sec

bandwidth about 20 Khz,
modulation: FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave)
sweep-rate: 50 sps

 Below, the radar heard on 8070.0 Khz, 20 Khz bandwidth but with a sweep-rate of 25 sps:

OTH radars can detect and track aircraft, missiles in the atmosphere, and even large ships within the coverage fan as long as the objects are at least 500-1000 km from the radar and no more than about 5000 km, with the best coverage in the 1000-3500 km range.
The area covered by such radars is usually a fan extending in a line perpendicular to the transmitter array and as much as 50 degrees to either side, for a total fan width of up to 100 degrees. Although some OTH radars have a much narrower fan (ca 60 degrees), the alignment of the receiver arrays at Agios Nikolaos suggests that this system does have a wide fan. 
PLUTO transmitter SITE, north From Akrotiri (Cyprus)

This image shows approximately what the fan for the Pluto radar might look like, assuming that it is as wide as estimated above. The concentric arcs are at 1000 km intervals and the radiating lines are at 10 degree intervals. As can be seen, the fan covers little or none of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel, but provides good coverage of Iraq, Iran, the Gulf States, part of Saudi Arabia, and most of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the former Soviet Stans, and possible coverage of part of India. The Russian launch areas at Baikonur and Kapustin Yar are probably covered, as is the Persian Gulf and much of the Arabian Sea.

The receiver element, typically one or more long, linear arrays of antennas, is usually somewhat distant from the transmit site, as much as 100 km. In the case of this system, the receivers are likely to be at the other British Sovereign Base Area, Agios Nikolaos. There are three long white rectangular areas visible in the low-res GE imagery of Agios Nikolaos that might be the system's receive arrays.


hopping sounder (10Khz bw, 10 sps)

observed on 19845 Khz (cf), hopping its working frequency.

I used first the oscilloscope to get a measure of the distances between two consecutive sweeps:

The sounder is 100 msec delay between the sweeps, so (1000 msec/100 msec) = 10 sweeps per second (or 10 sps). The sweeps can also be observed, and measured, in the frequency domain: as expected, the sweep rate is 10 sps (100 ms distance between two sweeps). Modulation is FMOP.

This signal hops frequencies in a specific manner. It starts moving up the band in various intervals then it goes back and starts again, overlapping Amateur and broadcast shortwave bands.